Oromia’s Irreecha Festival – A Revival of an Ancient African Culture – An Attempt to Understand and Explain

By Mekuria Bulcha, Ph. D.

Irreech 1903 at Lake Hora Bishoftu town

Irreecha 1903 at Lake Hora Bishoftu town. Thanksgiving, forgiving and forward looking expression day for Oromo.

Irreecha (also spelled Irreessa), the Oromo equivalent of Thanksgiving, was traditionally celebrated bi-annually in different parts of the Oromo country. The Irreecha Birra festival is celebrated in the month of September and Irreecha Arfaasaa in the month of April. Although it was a non-political festival, the irreecha was suppressed by Ethiopian regimes. Brought back to life by a struggle for cultural revival which the Oromo have waged during the last fifty, the festival is now playing a significant role in the manifestation and preservation of Oromo national identity. The festival in its traditional form is celebrated in different localities across Oromia. At the national level, it is an event that brings millions of Oromos from all over the Oromo country and non-Oromo visitors from other parts of the world to the shores of Hora (Lake) Arsadi in the city of Bishoftu in central Oromia. As such, it has no parallel in Africa. The festival is celebrated not only in Oromia, but has become an event which is observed transnationally by tens of thousands of Oromos settled in many countries around the world.

This paper aims to shed light on the role of the irreecha festival in the expression of Oromo unity and national identity. It is said that a collective identity is constructed not only in and of its present life, but also in reconstructing the collectivity’s earlier life. I will describe the role of numerous pan-Oromo socio-cultural and historical symbols and artefacts which the festival has brought to light, in awakening the Oromo sense of belonging to a community. The pan-Oromo democratic tradition is reflected in the artefacts displayed in the irreecha parade, in the blessings of elders who officiate it, in the environmental ethics articulated and in the performances of artist who entertain the celebrants.

Elements of a reviving culture packed up in a festival

In the pre-colonial past, the Irreecha Birra marked the end of the rainy season and the beginning of harvest season. It is an Oromo custom to gather on the river banks and the shores of lakes and give thanks to Waaqa (God) for all his bounty and pray for Nagaa (peace) and Araara (reconciliation) among humans and with God. Today, the festival has come to mark the end of the rainy season, and more. It marks the end of the cultural trauma which had affected the Oromo for about a century. It heralds and confirms that the time when the Oromo culture was seen as “pagan and primitive” is gone for good. It denotes victory over a history of cultural denigration.

The elders of the nation, their counsel and benediction

Like in the past, the haayyuu (elders, wise men, the learned – both singular and plural) thank God and bless the nation as their ancestors did. They bless the nation; they remind their audience to uphold the Oromo ethics of safuu and nagaa (respect and peace), reconcile among themselves and pray to God to reconcile with them.  Although many of the Oromo concepts, vocabulary and semantics the haayyuu use are archaic, the meanings of their blessing and sagacious counsel are comprehensible to their audience. The following is a rough translation of an excerpt from the counsel and blessing of a haayyuu who officiated an irreecha festival outside the city of Naqamtee in 2013.

Shall evil have no place amongst you?
Shall hate have no place amongst you?
Shall truth find you?
Is this your testimony before God?
Let peace be among all!
Let peace be among adults!
Let peace be among the youth!
Let peace be with the livestock!

He reminded the participants the connection that the occasion has with the Oromo heritage and counsels and commands them to confirm the authenticity of the occasion. He asked them whether spirit of the celebration is aligned with the spirit of Oromo traditions as reflected in the laws of the five major Odaas: Odaa Nabee (in central Oromia), Odaa Bisil (in western Oromia), Odaa Bulluq (in north-western Oromia), Odaa Roobaa (in south-eastern Oromia) and Odaa Bultum (in eastern Oromia). He asked them whether the traditions of Madda Walaabuu are respected. The five Odaas were centers of the ancient gadaa republics where the Oromo met and elected their leaders and reviewed their laws and made new ones every eighth yearsaccording to the constitution of the nation, and Madda Walaabuu was the seat of Abba Muuda, the high priest of traditional Oromo religion Waaqeffannaa. The response of the celebrants is in the affirmative. This was followed by another moment of blessing which, roughly translated, said the following

You shall not conspire against one another
You shall not betray one another
Let God be at peace with you
Let the Earth be at peace with you

The significance of this ritual is not that the counsel of the haayyuu is translated into action, but the historical and cultural knowledge it conveys and the consciousness it raises in the minds of the audience. The past is memorized and communicated not only by the haayyuu but is also stored and reflected in the array of artefacts and costumes that decorate the irreecha parade. Combined with sagacious words of the haayyuu, the rich symbols of the Oromo gadaa culture – that attire the multitude who march in total harmony – reveal the dignity and pride with which the Oromo nation is re-asserting its culture and identity.

The poetic interpretations of artists

The collective memories of the nation, preserved in the ritual and symbols, then expressed in the words of the haayyuu, are supplemented by young artists who herald the revival of their heritage with songs and dances. Some of songs such as Galaanee Bulbulaa’s “Kottaa ni hirreefannaa, aadaa bade deeffannaa” which means (“Come let us celebrate Thanksgiving; Let us revive our banned culture”, Giftii Dhadhii’s Oromoon seera qabaa (“The Oromo have laws”), Abdoo Badhaasoo’s Irreecha irreeffanna (“We will celebrate Thanksgiving”), Gaaddisee Shamsadin’s Beenu Oromia, irreechi irree keenya (“Go on Oromia, irreecha is our power”) and Amartii Waarii’s Kottaa ni kabajna kuni aadaa keenyaa (“Come, let us celebrate our culture”), which were performed at the irreecha festivals and elsewhere, connect the Oromo present with the past. They herald the recovery, revival and survival of the Oromo culture from the destruction to which it was doomed by conquest and colonization. In short, they reflect the feelings which underpin the ongoing Oromo recovery from a century of cultural trauma. The “green” leitmotif of luxuriant vegetation and abundant water against which the artists perform, provides a symbolic connection with God and nature that suggest that the Oromo are and will be at peace, with God, and also with nature. Their lyrics imply that the earth, the forests, rivers, lakes, animals and all the other living things are both natural and divine. Their implicit message is that what hurts the eco-system hurts humans also.

The dynamics that are at work during the irreecha festivals and what the participants experience is more than what the eye can see or the ear can hear. It is a joy and sense of belonging and experience of being part of a community that cannot be expressed fully in words. It is more. What the participants experience is a resurrection of a nation and a reconstruction of collective memory through the festival and the array of artefacts it displays. The occasion creates a collective “reality” and history. This collective reality connotes a state of being of the same mind, sharing a collective memory about a shared past and, just as importantly, an aspiration for a common future. This is more than a product of individual perception or understanding. When asked by a journalist from China Central TV Africa (CCTV) what he was thinking about the irreecha celebration at the 2014 festival in Bishoftu, a young celebrant replied

I don’t have a word to express what I see or feel. I believe that this is my culture and religion at the same time. This is what was forwarded to us by our ancestors; and it is what I will forward to my children.

This individual is not alone in having that “feeling” about the festival.  His feeling is shared by other Oromo participants around him and those who watch the process on TV.  They may or may not express what they see and feel with words, but most of them, share with him the experience that what they see is their culture symbolized in the festival. When human communities attach symbols to words, concepts and artefacts that signify their collective experience, they share a vision. A society cannot exist without a degree of this sort of vision shared by a majority of its members. The young respondent cited above says that what he sees is his culture and religion which was passed to him by his ancestors and which he will pass over to his children. In other words, what he sees reflects his identity and that of others around him. My point is that the irreecha festival is one of the ways in which the Oromo society “recognizes itself”, that is to say imagines, feels, experiences or knows about its own existence. As an occasion and venue for the symbolic expression of Oromo history and culture, the irreecha festival connects the Oromo to a common past through the tangible artefacts on display in the massive parades.

It important to note here that the Oromo celebrate the irreecha irrespective of their religious backgrounds. Whether they are Waaqeffataa, Christians or Muslims they participate in the festival. The moral counsel and ideals officiated by the haayyuu do not contradict the essence of any of the three religions. In fact the haayyuu who officiate it are from all the three religions on most occasions. The festival unites the Oromo and harmonizes their thoughts and voices. It creates a “mental state” shared by the entire Oromo nation. Whether one interprets the occasion culturally or politically, the significance of the prayer, counsel and blessing of the haayyuu and the songs of the artists in raising Oromo consciousness and unifying the nation cannot be overlooked. It is important to stress, however, the fact that the aim of the counsel of the haayyuu and the songs of the artists is not to “mobilize” the participants for collective political action on the spot. The occasion is to celebrate a tradition and its revival. The traditional Oromo ethics of safuu and nagaa, or respect for and peace with God, humans and the natural world pervade the atmosphere in which the festival is conducted. As I will explain in more detail below, the tranquility which the occasion demands is respected.

Tranquility underpinned by tension and ethically controlled anger

It is important to note here that the tranquility that has characterized the Bishoftu irreecha parade of millions of men, women and children during the last few years is not a sign that the participants are satisfied with their situation or the status quo. The tranquility reflected in the massive annual parades should not give us the impression that Oromia is a peaceful territory and that Ethiopia is a stable polity.  In fact, the benedictions of the haayyuu who officiate the festival are often underpinned by restrained feelings of dissatisfaction. The songs of the artists who entertain the participants contain anger felt against the prevailing political conditions. During the 2014 irreecha festival, for example, the prayers of the elders were marked by a feeling of grief for the Oromo students who had been cruelly killed by the agents of the regime because they were opposing the so-called Addis Ababa Master Plan. The “crime” for which students were killed, as we all know, was participation in a peaceful protest against the eviction of the Oromo people from their land en masse. The haayyuu were not calling their audience to make war, but praying for the restoration of justice and for Oromo victory over all those who are harming or will harm them.  Concern about human rights’ violations committed by the TPLF regime was also reflected through slogans which called for “Respect to Oromo humanity and sovereignty” and “Respect Oromo Rights to their Territory” from the crowd. In short, the bright colors, the melodious songs and entertaining dances we observe in the irreecha parades do not signify Oromo satisfaction with their present situation in Ethiopia. We cannot expect a people whose youth are killed cruelly by a dictatorial regime, or, a people who are evicted from their homes and land, or, a people who are rounded up routinely and are thrown into jail en masse without the rule of law, to be satisfied. The celebrants of the irreecha festival were immensely dissatisfied with the Tigrayan regime. But, as Asmarom Legesse has remarked, “among the Oromo, war is war and peace is immensely tranquil” (see Gadaa Democracy, 2000, p. 77). The irreecha festival is an occasion that requires such tranquility. To feel anger about the injustice is normal and expected, but to express it would violate the spirit of a sacred occasion that Oromos greatly value. As a journalist from CCTV Africa who visited the festival in 2014 described it “the irreecha is a sort of family gathering.” Indeed, the festival is a sacred come-together for the different branches of the Oromo nation.  It would be considered immoral to disturb it.  However, given that the ruling Tigrayan elite are nervous about every Oromo gathering and that they have shown unprecedented impunity against the Oromo people, the possibility of interference by its security forces that can turn the tranquil “family gathering” into a bloody scene cannot be disregarded. During the last ten years the peace was disturbed by measures taken against participants of the festival: visitors were beaten, and many were imprisoned. Some of them were wounded by bullets fired by the police. During the 2010 festival 120 young participants were imprisoned accused of being “terrorists”; the gadaa cultural costume they wore was interpreted as a symbol of the Oromo Liberation Front (personal communication).  Yet the Oromo have continued to come to Lake Arsadi in an ever increasing numbers to continue with the revival of their ancient culture.

Artefacts that symbolize the “staying power of Oromo institutions”

After decades of suppression, the spontaneity with which irreecha, and other Oromo traditions, have come back to life during the last two decades has proved the resilience of Oromo culture. This shows that the majority of the Oromo people have successfully maintained a collective identity different from an identity which the Ethiopian ruling elites have been trying to impose on them in an effort to create a people with “one culture (Abyssinian), one religion (Orthodox Christianity), one language (Amharic) and one nation (Ethiopia)” out of a colonial empire.

The symbols that the irreecha festival has brought together are ancient and pan-Oromo reflecting what Asmarom Legesse has famously referred to as the “staying power” of the gadaa cultural heritage (ibid. p. 103). They symbolize justice, peace, and sovereignty which the Oromo of the gadaa republics enjoyed in the past. In fact, the bokkuu which are carried by men and siqqee carried by women, as well as a range of other pre-colonial pan-Oromo gadaa symbols which are lined-up prominently by participants in the irreecha parade, reinforce the memories and values shared by the multitude gathered at the festival sites as well as those who are following the event in the media from afar, whether in Oromia or in the diaspora. The bokkuu and siiqqee are the symbols of the democratic ethos of the gadaa system. The bokkuu, a scepter which is carried by elderly men, is the symbol of the gadaa system, signifying both power and justice. As a symbol of gadaa democracy the siiqqee stood for the inalienable rights of Oromo women and the inviolability of their human dignity. It is a symbol for an institution within the gadaa system. A woman is “accepted” into such an institution on her marriage day and thenceforth she is protected by it against any violation of her rights or human dignity, be it by her husband or other men.  The siiqqee entitles Oromo women to participate in many instances of decision making, in conflict resolution and other important matters that concern their society. The authenticity of the irreecha festival is reflected not only in the artefacts displayed in the parade or the blessings conducted by the hayyuu and songs sung by the artists, but also in the amazing harmony which pervades the gathering of millions of people: the festival is serene; it proceeds peacefully and ends without incidents.

To go back to symbols, nations need symbols to frame their self-identification: that is symbols which help them to recognize themselves as collectivities, or that they exist as a “We”. Those who claim belongingness to such a collectivity share a culture, the elements of which are given significance in ritual practice. Thus, the array of symbols, such as the ones displayed in in the irreecha parades, constructs a narrative which holds together the imagination of a people and provides bases of harmonious thought and collective action. Nations around the world organize parades for different reasons. Some organize them to commemorate historical events such as their victories in battles or day of national independence. Others use parades to exhibit their cultural achievements or display technological progress. The irreecha festival, in the form it takes in Bishoftu today is, by and large, a national parade organized to celebrate the revival of Oromo culture. It heralds Oromo victory over ethnocide, or the attempted destruction of their culture by Ethiopian regimes. The costumes which the majority in the parade wear and the artefacts they carry reflect the culture and history which the different branches of the Oromo nation had shared and preserved. It is a history and culture which they rejoice with pride and will revive and defend.  For the Oromo people, the consequences of the Abyssinian conquest was prolonged cultural trauma. The irreecha festival heralds that the Oromo are now leaving behind that trauma.

The irreecha is taking the place of the ancient muudaa pilgrimage

What is very significant about the festival is that the multitude of men and women who converge on Bishoftu city from all over the Oromo country celebrate a culture that was denigrated, despised and suppressed for about a century. Such a massive gathering is reminiscent of another aspect of Oromo culture.  The spontaneous pan-Oromo participation in the festival suggests the manner in which the ancient pilgrimage to Abbaa Muuda was undertaken by thousands of jila (pilgrims) from the different gadaa federations. The pilgrimage to the holy muuda shrines attracted every eighth year tens of thousands of men who represented every Oromo clan from every corner of the Oromo country. Today, the irreecha festival celebrated on the shores of Lake Arsadi is playing a similar role.

The jila pilgrimage was both a religious and a political undertaking. Those who traveled on foot for months every eighth year to the muuda shrines from regions which are far apart, were drawn together by a myth of origin from one ancestor, Orma. This was reinforced by a common language, a common religion through a strong attachment to their spiritual leader Abba Muuda, a common system of law, a shared attitude toward the natural world as well as their democratic character – all gave the Oromo who lived in different gadaa republics a sense of a single nation.  The muuda institution maintained the moral unity of the Oromo nation until it was banned in 1900 by Emperor Menelik. The ban exacerbated the traumatic disruption of Oromo culture which I have mentioned above. The revival of the irreecha festival is a major step in dispelling the distortion of Oromo self-perception as a nation that was created by the disruption of conquest and colonization.

It is important to recollect here that it was the Macca Tuulama Association (MTA) that paved the way to take the Oromo nation into the present phase of their history. It is a well known fact that the activities of the MTA launched the recovery of the Oromo nation from the cultural and political traumas of conquest and colonization. It became the first forum to gather members of the Oromo branches from different parts of their country for a common purpose decades after the jila pilgrimages were banned by the imperial Ethiopian government. The MTA itself was banned by a successor of Menelik in 1968; but its work was resumed by the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) beginning in the mid-1970s. It was also by the initiative of the MTA members that the Lake Arsadi irreecha festival was revived in the mid-1990s overcoming the restrictive surveillance of the present Ethiopian regime. The MTA was banned and its leaders were imprisoned for the second time in 2004, but the irreversible work of Oromo cultural revival that had started fifty years ago has continued on a large scale as reflected in the Irreecha festival.

Although the aim of the journey taken by Oromo masses to Lake Arsadi today is not exactly the same as those which stimulated the pilgrimage to the muuda shrines in the past, the effects are similar. It brings people from every corner of the Oromo country to one place. The irreecha festivals have re-established the sense of belonging to a single nation by the different branches of the Oromo nation in the way that the jila pilgrimage did in the past.  The national consciousness created by the irreecha festival may be even deeper than the awareness that was created by the muuda pilgrimages and kept the Oromo nation intact in the past. Covered by mass media which takes the festival home to millions of Oromos at home and transnationally, the annual event makes Oromo imagination of their national community more vivid, immediate and real than it had ever been in the past.

For the Oromo their land is holy to all religions

As a cultural and religious site Lake Arsadi is located in a district which, de facto, was a holy land for the Oromo. Odaa Nabee, one of the oldest and most historic and ritually significant sites of the gadaa assemblies, is located about 15 km north of the lake. Tulluu (Mount) Cuqqaalaa (Ziquala in Amharic), Tulluu Erer, Tulluu Bosati, Tulluu Furii, Tulluu Eegduu, Tuluu Foyataa, Tullu Galaan and Tullu Waatoo Daalachaa which were called Saddetan Tulluu Waaqayoo (the eight mountains of God) in Oromo tradition are also located in the district within less than 30 km distance from the lake. Scholars of Oromo studies have argued that mountains were seen as ceremonial grounds in the past and that the tops of the mountains mentioned here were used for that purpose.  In fact, the shores of a crater lake on Mt. Cuqqaalaa was a site for the irreecha festival for centuries. In short, the proliferation of ritual sites indicates the importance which the region has in the religious and political lives of the Oromo.

It is well known that Abyssinian kings and Orthodox clergy built churches in the lands they conquered to serve their soldiers and settlers, and in some cases also to Christianize the conquered peoples. It seems that the Oromo region of Ada’a in which Bishoftu city is located was given more attention in this respect than normal. The conquerors did not stop with building churches and converting the indigenous population; the intention seems to have been  Christianizing the land and changing its Oromo identity as well. They gave biblical names such as Debre Zeit to Bishfotu and Nazret (Nazreth) to Adama. Farther south, two islands in Lake Zway were also called Galila Daseet (Galilee Island) and Debre Sina. The change of these place names in a region which is seen as sacred by the Oromo to Semitic Biblical names is perhaps to “Semiticize and Abyssinize” the region, deny its indigenous Oromo identity and claim it as a “holy” land proclaiming that it belonged to their Christian empire since ancient times. However, the policy did not succeed; the place names were reversed back to Oromo names in the 1970s, and now the irreecha festival is reviving the cultural identity of the district. Waaqeffannaa, the traditional Oromo religion, with which the irreecha is culturally aligned, is also reviving. This does not meant there is no opposition to the re-institution of the Oromo heritage.  According interviews given by Abba Abdiisaa Dhaabaa, Hunddasaa Waqwayyaa and Kaasaa Balchaa to a journalist from the Oromia Media Network recently (OMN TV, September 13, 2015), the opposition of the Orthodox clergy against the Bishoftu irreecha festival is still persistent. The denigration of the Oromo religious festival has not stopped.

The opposition of the Orthodox clergy seems to be even more marked against the celebration of the Spring irreecha on the shores of the crater lake on Mount Cuqqaalaa. As mentioned above, the shores of that crater lake is an ancient site where the Oromo festival was celebrated for centuries. A monastery run by Orthodox Christians had also existed since the twelfth century on the same mountain. Its clergy had co-existed with the Oromo who follow their own religious tradition and celebrated irreecha festival on the shores of the crater lake. On the part of the Oromo, who do not see the co-existence of the different religions as a problem, this is not surprising. What is remarkable is the decision of the Orthodox clergy to share the shores of a small lake for ritual purposes with a people their church considers as heathen.  According to oral tradition the remarkable co-existence was a result of an agreement made with the Oromo by a bishop who founded the monastery. The condition which forced the bishop to accept the coexistence of the two religion is not clear. Ironically, the tolerance which the Orthodox clergy have shown over the centuries has changed into irrational opposition in recent years and the co-existance between the two religious communities is disturbed. According to my informant, the Oromo have been forbidden to celebrate the irreecha festival on Mount Cuqqaalaa since 2010. It is reported that a stelae called sida Nabee (Nabee’s statue) which stood for centuries and was associated with Oromo traditions was also destroyed recently. According to the same source, the resistance of the clergy is against the revival of the Oromo religious culture. However, given the number of Oromo “pilgrims” who visit the irreecha celebrations, it is plausible to suggest that the revival of Oromo religious and cultural traditions is unstoppable. Above all, based on the religious backgrounds of the millions of people who participate in the irreecha festival and the haayyuu who officiate it, one can say that today Bishoftu is a sacred place not only for Waaqeffataa (followers of the traditional Oromo religion), but also for Christians and Muslims. That shows that in Oromia people from all religious background are welcome. But, religious fanaticism is not. It is detested.

Refutation of Oromo misrepresentations and misconceptions  

The festival refutes many of the misconceptions which are created by Ethiopianist narratives. As I have pointed out my recent book The Contours of the Ancient and Emergent Oromo Nation (see Bulcha, 2011, Chapter 8), there are Ethiopianist writers who posit that the Oromo “have never had a sense of collective identity based on popular memory,” that the Oromo have no common historical symbols that are emotionally appealing to them or which could serve as primary symbols of their national identity and that they do not have a collective consciousness “rooted in myths and symbols.” The range of pan-Oromo symbols and artefacts, which are mentioned above, refute these propositions. They contradict the argument, which says the Oromo “do not possess a sense of belonging to a single societal community who shared important past experience and a common historic destiny.” The enthusiasm with which the Oromo are reviving the irreecha shows not only the resilience of this element of their traditional culture but also the revival of Oromummaa (being Oromo) in contradiction to the imposed culture of Ethiopiyawinet (Ethiopian-ness) with unexpected speed and vibrancy. Contradicting the picture of a “chaotic” people depicted in the Ethiopianist discourse, the festival also proves that the Oromo are a people who have a culture capable of bringing together millions of men, women and children from different religious backgrounds in one place to celebrate their ancient traditions with utmost harmony and peace. The revival of the irreecha festival in such a manner and on such a scale confirms, among others, that time when the Oromo were made to feel shame about their history, culture and identity; and the time when they strived to behave like or speak the language of their conquerors in order to be taken as Ethiopians is gone.

It is also interesting to note here the profound refutation the festival offers to the Ethiopianist misconception of Oromo history, culture and identity. It refutes the misconception that the Oromo are a mixed bag of different tribes who do not share a common past or have a collective identity. As I have discussed at length elsewhere (see above), literature on Ethiopia – still in use – asserts the ‘fragility’ of Oromo socio-cultural features in contrast to the ‘tenacity’ of Abyssinian traditions. It has been argued by Ethiopianist historians that the Oromo lack a sense of community and solidarity and possess no collective memory or corporate history. For those who will understand Oromo culture and history it suffices to watch the irreecha festival. It narrates a cultural history shared by an entire nation. It does not narrate stories about kings and emperors who conquered and subjugated other people; it mirrors a heritage that is different from the Abyssinian heritage which the Ethiopianist historiographers have in mind when they talk about peoples “who lack history”.

Conclusion

Given what is said about the irreecha in this article, the following can be concluded. From the historical point of view, a recent and clear manifestation of the resilience of Oromo cultural heritage is that the Oromo have, in the face of a vicious colonial repression, preserved the irreecha.  This achievement shall be added to the preservation of important aspects of the Oromo gadaa system and the traditional Oromo religion, Waaqeffannaa.  Indeed, this confirms that time when the Oromo were made to feel shame about their culture is gone for good, and the time has arrived when the Oromo culture assumes the place it deserves as a noteworthy cultural heritage of Africa and a significant contribution to global culture.

Taking into account the colorful costumes of its celebrants, it is clear that the festival has brought out expressions, colors, and art forms that are uniquely Oromo but which were hidden from public sight in the past.  It is incumbent on Oromo artists, designers, scholars and organizers of festivals and Oromo events to polish and create quality out of the treasure of Oromo arts, artefacts and narratives that have been preserved by their people and are now manifested in abundance in Oromo oral literature and cultural traditions, including in the irreecha festival. In short, the festival is an occasion that can be used by the Oromo to introduce themselves and their unique African culture to the world community.

As a parting word, I would like to point out that as an event which attracts millions of participants from near and far, the Bishoftu irreecha festival is becoming a major income generating event. Unfortunately, most of the beneficiaries are not Oromo. Frantz Fanon has reminded us that the poverty of a colonized people, national oppression and the inhibition of their culture are one and the same thing (see his Wretched of the Earth). This has been the fate of the Oromo. Because of the policy of the previous Ethiopian regimes, the majority of property owners in and around the city of Bishoftu are no longer Oromo. The present regime’s land policy which is encroaching on the district and displacing the Oromo from the area and is worsening their predicament. The income generated by the lease or sale of their land to local and international contractors along with the value generated by their cultural significance is not benefiting the Oromo. For the irreecha festival to benefit them, the displacement of the Oromo should cease, and the so-called Addis Ababa Master Plan (AAMP), which is encroaching on the district from the north, should be stopped. If the Plan continues, the irreecha festival will soon end up celebrated in a territory bereft of its Oromo inhabitants and culture.

* A version of this article was presented at the 27th Annual Oromo Studies Association (OSA) Conference, 3-4 August 2013, Howard University, Washington D.C.

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Mekuria Bulcha, PhD and Professor of Sociology, is an author of widely read books and articles. His most recent book, Contours of the Emergent and Ancient Oromo Nation, was published by CASAS (Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society), Cape Town, South Africa, in 2011. He was also the founder and publisher of The Oromo Commentary (1990-1999). He is an active member of the OLF and has served in the different branches of the national movement since the 1970s.

85 Responses to Oromia’s Irreecha Festival – A Revival of an Ancient African Culture – An Attempt to Understand and Explain

  1. Qoricho September 27, 2015 at 4:54 pm #

    If we compare the 1903 and current Bushofttu, it seems like desert without any tree in the surrounding area… Any input!

  2. Ayaanle September 27, 2015 at 5:27 pm #

    Insightful and the right perspective article as far as the Oromo’s history ,socio-cultural and spiritual foundations are concerned.But one thing is for sure: fanatics of orthodox clergy and Abyssinian intellectuals &com will never cease to undermine the existence of the other main indigenous cultures, tradition and norms in the region such as the Oromos’, Somalis’ and Southern Nations’ . If they learned anything from their friendly colonial powers in last hundred years, it is is not technology, science and enlighitments and but it is the denial and/or manipulating facts on the ground by degrading and putting down other indigenous black people in the region. But the big question now is how long that age-stubbornness and policy mindset will last and at what at cost?

  3. Ayaanle September 27, 2015 at 5:32 pm #

    Insightful and the right perspective article as far as the Oromo’s history ,socio-cultural and spiritual foundations are concerned.But one thing is for sure: fanatics of the orthodox clergy and Abyssinian intellectuals &com will never cease to undermine the existence of the other main indigenous cultures, traditions and norms in the region such as the Oromos’, Somalis’ and Southern Nations’ . If they have learned anything from their friendly colonial powers in last hundred years, it is is not technology, science and enlighitments but it is the denial and/or manipulation of facts on the ground by degrading and putting down other indigenous black people in the region. But the big question now is how long that age-old stubbornness and policy mindset will last and at what at cost?

    • Barii A September 27, 2015 at 7:37 pm #

      Very informative article! Yes, the very essence of Ethiopia’s political culture is denial. Even the most educated Amharic-Centered Ethiopianist groups prefer denials and defying realities of Ethiopia much more than facing the elephant reality. Just as an example, please read the political program and the press releases of the newly formed so called United Movement for the Salvation of Ethiopia through Democracy (UMSED) lead by minorities like Dr. Birhanu Nega, Ephrem Madebo, Dr. Tadess Biru Kersemo, etc. You will be surprised about the core of its mission and delusional nature of their politics honey-coated with democracy rhetoric.

      UMSED claims that Ethiopia is a nation-state. Therefore, it denies the very existence of the questions of nations, nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia, and denies the multinational nature of Ethiopia by claiming Ethiopia is a nation state. Simply put, if one just believes in Oromo. Amhara, Tigre, Sidama, etc. being separate nations, one cannot support UMSED politics.

      United Movement for the Salvation of Ethiopia through Democracy (UMSED) Press Release:

      “Ethiopia is one of the oldest nation-states in the world” (UMSED).

      http://ethiomedia.com/1000parts/7313.html

  4. Laaloo September 27, 2015 at 9:16 pm #

    Dear Prof Mekuria,

    Thank you. Informative and analytical as usual. You are absolutely right that the Oromo are here to stay. We will continue to grace planet earth with our vibrant culture. Imagine what Oromo would look like when we set our land free! The Oromo cultural resistance needs studying as a form of liberation movement.

    Measured and dignified this great nation is an asset for humanity. Proud, just and fair people. I am proud to be Oromo when I see the rhythmic parade, pomp and ceremony that only Oromo can put together without an institution or state to run it. Who is organising a festival for millions without a national institution or body responsible for organising such an event, except of course the Oromo. And do not forget they do so successfully despite the state machinery working against them. Can anyone see what I mean?

    This sort of ingenious and sophisticated nation deserves to regain its independence to fulfil its full potential.

    Viv la Oromia!

  5. hawwinee barii September 28, 2015 at 7:33 am #

    Thank Prof as usual. Excellent observation and analysis. Denying this people their right to independence is denying the most elementary form of democracy and justice. Sitting and lamenting about what Ethiopian colonialism does to us today instead of doing something touchable like supporting the OLF, the savior is just like supporting Ethiopian colonialism that deny our existence. There must be two kinds of Oromians today, those who are for independence of Oromia and those who for slavery. There is nothing like neutral. Neutrality is a form denial and in fact it is cowardice and unpatriotic. It is only and only the independence of Oromia that guarantee the existence and continuity Oromo culture. Any time, Ethiopia will tighten the noose on Oromoo culture and ban it like they did to Macha Tuulama Association. Ethiopian colonial rule is relaxing our culture not out of believing in our right but out of political expedience. They do it because they believe by doing that they deny the OLF the support it gets from Oromians. Once the threat of OLF disappear, they think, they can ban it.

  6. Abdiisa Oncho September 28, 2015 at 7:23 pm #

    Obbo Qoricho,

    The grey things you see on the slopes are not stones. They are trees, shrubs and green grass in black and white. You know this is a very old picture (112 yrs old), they did not have colored photos in those days.

    By the way, I liked the article and have enjoyed the colorful parade and melodious songs inserted in it. Beautiful young artists! I think irreecha is a fantastic grand festival! What about you?

    Nagaatti

  7. Oromian bateleur September 28, 2015 at 8:39 pm #

    Qoricho must yet learn how to observe the geographical contour. He must understand that if one takes a picture vertically from the very high altitude, especially in black and white, one can only see a sea of desert like that of Bishooftu of that time.

  8. Ezana September 29, 2015 at 5:59 am #

    Should the truth be with you? If that is true oromo zhould admit that they didn’t exist prior to 16th century in Ethiopia. Aka the great oromo (gala) migration.

    • Gaarii September 29, 2015 at 7:40 am #

      The truth is Ethiopian Empire never existed before Menelik but Abyssinia. Another fact is Cush land exist before Habash Abyssinia. Habash is late comer to cush land.

  9. Oromian bateleur September 29, 2015 at 1:10 pm #

    ” Ezana ”

    You simply mentioned your name as ” Ezana “, but, really do you know who was Ezana ? Bragging or boasting with somebody else’s name does not make you an hero.

  10. Senayt September 29, 2015 at 4:24 pm #

    you should thank and bend for eprdf becouse of the eprdf you start to breath clean air and excercise your right .

  11. JA September 29, 2015 at 9:07 pm #

    I am not an historian or a sociologist. But I liked what I read in the prof’s Article. I also have questions in an attempt to understand more about the sinificance of Irrechaa in the social, cultural and political of PRESENT DAY OROMOS. Every socity on this planet earth has a historical and traditional values. Cultures develop, traditions evolve and socities change. Nothing stay the same. For example, Irrecha which is a sub set of Gadaa system is explaind cultural rather than political. Then Mecha and Tulamaa was born as our socity changed socially and politically served the need of that generation. Then OLF was born in the 1970s as the need of our time has increasengly become politics. So what is urgently needed now is the national movement for libration of oromos than looking back at only the one system that helped our unity at the time. We have a better one now which can help us regain our place both in politcs and social. I would have loved to see this approach from our dear prof. I am saying this because it is the academicians proragetive to approach or see things critically. Since i am an ordinary oromo my saying doesn’t have any weight.

    • Barii September 30, 2015 at 4:51 am #

      Enough is not written on the Oromo culture, history, language, etc. The major source of liberation propaganda should embody the grand history of the Oromo culture and history. Actually, there is lack of embodying the grand Oromo history and culture into Oromo political propaganda. More of our political propaganda is bordering depressing news of being victimized and ensuing crisis imposed on us whereas those who control us rehearse the history of their warlords 24/7.

      The foundation of Oromos pride like Gadaa system and Irreechaa are not moving ethos that we can replace with some political rhetorics-even worse our weak and divisive political culture.

  12. Ezana September 30, 2015 at 5:15 am #

    Why the galas want o be called oromo If they are actually proud of their history. Isn’t that a slave mentality, want to be called oromo that is a name given by German, and want to write in Latin that is an European alphabet. Why not be proud of history and call yourself gala and write in original african script?

  13. Oromian bateleur September 30, 2015 at 7:30 am #

    Why don’t you better call yourself Abba Bahre or Aleqa Taye, than taking the name of Ezana the Himyarite from Arabian Peninsula.
    Just sit there and spit out the talktale of your 16th century myth. It shows that you are retarded and frustrated beyond being cured. Please continue your tolling the passing bell on Oromos, but you don’t know that you are gradually going down the quicksand which is already at your and your likes neck.

    Come on, continue to bring out more of your hidden hatred, active and passive aggressive personality or culture to show to the Oromos.

  14. Tufaa September 30, 2015 at 8:07 am #

    For those of you who doubt the importance of cultural heritages in national liberation struggles, please read books and articles on “national liberation and culture”. I read a couple of them. They are very insightful. We should celebrate the articles written by Prof Mekuria. They will definitely help our cause.

  15. Oromian bateleur September 30, 2015 at 9:38 am #

    My above comment was for ” Ezana ” .

  16. Senayt September 30, 2015 at 12:19 pm #

    ezana
    if you are ignorant , please don,t insult the great oromo people becouse of few foolish and narrow minded oromos in the diaspora. Do not forget oromos are ethinc cush. Cush people are not new comers. Based on your argument ,other cush people like agaw,kimant,sidama,hadiya,afar should be new comers. absolutely wrong
    btw, either you are shintam shaebia or derg remenant who wants to incited people to make violence so that you can satisfy you hidden agenda.

  17. K October 1, 2015 at 3:08 pm #

    100% BORING …LOSERS

  18. K October 1, 2015 at 3:10 pm #

    @Oromian bateleur

    R U STILL ALIVE …. BORING …. HOPE YOU RECOVERED WELL FROM THAT NASTY FLUE >>>>>>>> BORING ISN’T IT ……….

  19. Oromian bateleur October 1, 2015 at 7:54 pm #

    Wow ! You know very well the story of FLUE, and what about the jiggers, bugs and scabies ? Or you are ashamed to mention them ?

    For sure, when you hear my name you hear eerie shriek which sends chilly shivering down into your spinal cord, isn’t it ? But don’t be terrified and jump up, I will not bite you than saying the truth which is bitter pill for you to be swallowed.

  20. K October 2, 2015 at 6:42 am #

    @Oromian bateleur
    My friend I am with you …… down with OLF, ONLF and all anti Ethiopians and we will win going forward under the guidance of the principles and policies set out by our great visionary late leader meles zenawi … viva Ethiopia … Death to Harar, Arusi and Wellega fanatics …. keep up the good work we are reading all the important info and signal you send us … I really admire your courage … but all is not well I know it is BORING OUT THERE >>>>>>>>

  21. Oromian bateleur October 2, 2015 at 7:56 am #

    Ku Kluxer,

    Are you still ashamed to say down with G 7, EPPF, Blue Party and others old Debteras ? Don’t hide yourself behind Meles Zenawi’s name and try to promote the out rotten old Neftegna system. You cannot reach anywhere with G 7, EPPF, Blue Party and others hardliner Neftegna offsprings.

    If it is boring for you, I believe one forearm rope can get rid of your boresome, only if you are courageous.

  22. K October 2, 2015 at 8:05 am #

    Ya bro .. u r8 all a-n-tea mama eth ….b8 g7 || EPPF|| BP || OLF || ONL our moto is not to shift l8
    n>>1 but r8 a<<1 the bits are great on the r8 VIVA MAMA ETH DEATH TO ALL m-faqers

    Roger over and out

  23. Ezana October 4, 2015 at 2:43 pm #

    Why is everyone is ashamed to answer my quistion, why avoid the quistion and jump to insult reflects inferiority complex. Let me repeat my question.
    1, why galas want to be called oromo.
    2. Why galas want to write in European script if they claim to be an original african aka cush?

  24. whitestar October 4, 2015 at 3:10 pm #

    Ezana

    Everyone has the right to change their name to whatever they like it is their personal choice and everyone should respect that including you.

    And second what is original african script anyway? is it the one the habasha use and therefore any one opting for any other more practical script is somehow not african, is that what you are implying because that is twisted and very much condescending to others. you don’t have the right to tell who is really african and who is not. If you eat cheese burger instead of sour injira and raw meat does that make you less habasha. I think not and I would not try to take away you habasha identity but it is your choice what you want to be called.

    • Mina November 30, 2015 at 11:42 pm #

      Ezana
      If your cause is truly seeking knowledge, you should do a research and find every educational documents written on the history of Kush and you will soon learn who the Promo people are. Refrain from trying to insult people. I am sure you have a conscience since you are created a human being. So, live in peace with yourself and others.

  25. Ezana October 4, 2015 at 4:45 pm #

    Whitestar
    Ofcourse everyone has a right but my question is directed in to why? If you know history the galas has made a great contributions in developing the gez script. Regardless of your opinion on Habesha or cush, there is no evidence that galas existed prior to the 16th century.

    • whitestar October 4, 2015 at 10:13 pm #

      Habasha are arab bastards from yemen and Confucius hyprid with identity crisis.

    • Mina November 30, 2015 at 11:33 pm #

      Ezana
      The Geez script has only 7 vowels but Oromifaa has 10 vowels. Plus, in Oromo language there is a need for a double vowel in case of words with glotal stop. The Latin alphabet helps the Oromiffa language to be written out in a way that does not make it hard to pronounce, especially, for those who want to learn the language. Anyway, I am not a linguist but in my search of knowledge to better understand the reason why Oromiffa started using Latin script ,I came to learn this and more linguistic reasons to be the case. Plus, since childhood, thanks to our ‘ hibreteseb’ classes through which we were ‘ educated’ that the Oromo people and the Southern Nations were animists. However, to my surprise, I learnt that the Oromo ( worships Waqaa), the Sidama (worships Magano), the Hammer ( worships Borjo) are all monotheists, who believe in the God, who created everything, who is omnipresent and omnicient,omnipotent and omnibenevolent. So, my brother, let us take off the mask of ignorance and arrogance from the eyes of our being and learn the truth about what it is that we are standing in opposition to.
      Mina

  26. Ayaanle October 4, 2015 at 7:05 pm #

    Ezana

    Your baseless provocation is uncalled for it. For your question about habesha’s Geez script as being an African origin or invention, it is not true. It is a fairy tale concocted by the debtera Church and its fanatic followers. As much I would like to know and claim something invented by the black race, there is no doubt the Ge’ez script as being Armenian origin brought by the early orthodox missionaries to Horn Africa. Have you ever seen the Armenian script? I was confused when I came across first ti,e their script somewhere in the diaspora. Don’t tell us the other way around is true and that habeshas exported their script and orthodox sect to Armenian, which is among the oldest civilization the middle east and Mediterranean region. Secondly, using the Latin alphabet is less costly and easy to master since majority countries use it.

  27. Ayaanle October 4, 2015 at 7:08 pm #

    Ezana

    Your baseless provocation is uncalled for it. For your question about habesha’s Geez script as being an African origin or invention, it is not true. It is a fairy tale concocted by the debtera Church and its fanatic followers. As much I would like to know and claim something invented by the black race, there is no doubt the Ge’ez script as being Armenian origin brought by the early orthodox missionaries to Horn Africa. Have you ever seen the Armenian script? I was confused when I came across first time their script somewhere in the diaspora. Don’t tell us the other way around is true and that habeshas exported their script and orthodox sect to Armenian, which is among the oldest civilization the middle east and Mediterranean region. Secondly, using the Latin alphabet is less costly and easy to master since majority countries in the world use and modernize it.

  28. K October 4, 2015 at 7:24 pm #

    I think we all are OROMOS except whitestar who is Amhara … by the way the bits to the south are kicking well …. my be good for eastern part …. do not over do it Whaitstar

  29. Ayaanle October 4, 2015 at 7:47 pm #

    I mean , similarity of the so-called habesha’s pictorial modern Geez and these ancient script which was invent circa 340 AD by Armenians is striking. The only difference is that the Habesha changed few thing here and there to suit their linguistic phonetics and there is nothing wrong with that expect the ficticious claims of its invention.

  30. Ezana October 5, 2015 at 1:24 am #

    I still can’t believe no one is willing to answer the quistion, that why Galas want to be called oromoo? Gala is not an insult it actually mean brave.
    2, in terms of Geez alphabet, The earliest inscriptions of Semitic languagesin Eritrea and Ethiopia date to the 9th century BC . After the 7th and 6th centuries BC, however, variants of the script arose, evolving in the direction of the Geʻez abugida(a writing system that is also called an alphasyllabary). This evolution can be seen most clearly in evidence from inscriptions (mainly graffiti on rocks and caves) in Tigray region in northern Ethiopia and the former province of Akkele Guzay in Eritrea.

    • Barii October 5, 2015 at 5:43 am #

      Ezana,

      Stop selective history. Geez alphabet originated in South Arabia. Historical records abound. And then the Orthodox Church merely modified and expanded them for use. Even then the Egyptians, Armenians, Greeks, etc. played key roles in the Ethiopian/Eritrean Orthodox church, largely as leaders who set the course of the church for generations. Of course, you people are allergic to the truth. You live and breath falsehood and myths. And we don’t want to be part of your lie-machine.

  31. Aliye October 5, 2015 at 2:25 am #

    Who has assigned you here as moderator or examiner for your retarded requests ? Is the day boring for you ? Move your ass and go out to work than living on social benefit to bore yourself the whole of your life.

  32. Barii October 5, 2015 at 6:42 am #

    Sabean aka Geez alphabet origin in South Arabia and its growth via modifications.

    http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sabaean.htm

  33. Barii October 5, 2015 at 6:47 am #

    “The South Arabian alphabet is thought to have developed from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in about the 9th century BC. It is known from inscriptions found in Eritrea, Babylonia and Yemen dating from between 9th century BC and 7th century AD, and was used to write Sabaean, Qatabanian, Hadramautic, Minaean, Himyarite and proto-Ge’ez, extinct Semitic languages once spoken in southern parts of the Arabian peninsula.”

    http://www.omniglot.com/writing/southarabian.htm

  34. Ezana October 5, 2015 at 11:40 am #

    1, can any one tell me why galas want to be called oromo.
    2, can anyone show me any galas history prior to 16th century.
    Any statue? Any evidence that galas existed prior to 16th century?

    • Gaarii October 6, 2015 at 8:22 pm #

      It is like called Habashi. Do you clarify why you change your name from Abynia to ethiopia? The first official name Ethiopia used was in 1923 when Abynia was to be a member of League of Nation. USA state department archive clearly stated that why you change your name.The meaning was ” strange mix” in arabic which is insult , many fathers one mother. simply ” Diqalaa”.
      we preferred to be called by our name not derogatory your ancestors gave us. weather we are original to the land than the Hashas learn the cushtic and semitic history. Your denial does not take you anywhere. Soon you or your kind will be forced to learn Afaan Oromo to work and leave in that Empire like Amharic . Amharic forced on us, but you will learn Afaan Oromo voluntarily to survive.Woyane will implement this weather like or not in near future. Mr Ezana what happen to TPLf, H/Mariam did not assign them as its advisory? are they leaving Menelik palace? are they in relocation to their enclave before time late?

    • owld October 9, 2015 at 1:24 am #

      @ Ezana ! First of all do know what the word gala it means. You thank less Let me tell you what it means and why Oromo people want be called Oromo. At first for most Oromo is the original name that No one on the earth can take away from them. When your fame ancestors’ invaded our country. The reach Oromo people was very kind and are kind Oromo people said to your ancestors gala, gala, gala, which means in Amhric Gibu, Gibu, Gibu ( came in, came in, came in) they present for ancestors milk, honey, every beautiful food that you can get in paradise Oromo land has when the eat more than they have ever had they stated saying gala, gala they may be don’t know what gala means and then they started translating the world gala to the bad word that you can never say to anyone that is how much they were thank less and are thank less. You are still the same. Gala is not Oromo name it is your ancestors name weather or wanted or not there for shut your mouth. Oromo is their name that no parasite can take away from them.

      Have you got it now!

  35. Abdiisa Oncho October 5, 2015 at 11:47 am #

    Hi Ezana

    What is the connection of your talk about alphabets and names of peoples to do with this article and the subject it is abut? If you want to debate it must be about the article and its subject matter and not some sort of distorted story about peoples and alphabets. Don’t try to pull attention from an interesting and important piece of Writing about a great African culture. Are you jealous or what?

    Oncho

  36. Milkessa October 5, 2015 at 1:07 pm #

    Hi Ezana,

    Pleasure to see you here:

    1) why you ask? Why you want us to be called Gala? We know how your ancestors define Gala. Please move on man. Imiye Minilik ” the white ” was dead and so does his dream.
    2) Prior to16th century, we used to live in haven. It never crossed our ancestor mind to come to earth. Then we sinned, and joined you here in the hell world …sad:(

    What is your point? Are you trying to tell as we are new creatures? Oh …some ale.ika told you guys we are not created by God like you did…but the hybrid of fish and …come on man you can do better than that …

  37. Ezana October 5, 2015 at 2:45 pm #

    Dear milkissa,
    My quistion is in reference to a historical clarification, and to have a better understanding why the preference on the name oromoo vs. The historical and proud generation of Gala? You shouldn’t let others to define you. Galas should define themselves and gala is not an offensive word.
    2, in terms of Gala history. I couldn’t find a single evidence the existence in Ethiopia prior to the 16th century and I want a clarification. That is all!

  38. JA October 5, 2015 at 5:20 pm #

    Ezana,

    Why you hate the name oromo ? Maybe,”yeferut yidersal yetelut yiworsal” yibalal ina new. I don’t know your educational level, but history is always written by the winners. So ethiopian history is basically distorted. Ethiopia is a recent phenomena. Before ethiopia Oromos were there, Abysinians were there, and the southern people were there. I belive in issue not in name.

  39. K October 5, 2015 at 7:31 pm #

    Guys stop it … all is OOOOOOOKAAAAYYYYY … just be forward looking we all are OROMOS it does not matter but in final analysis we are proud ETHIOPIANS . Whether we like it or not our circumstances will force us at least eventually ” ZELLO ZELLO WEDE MERET YELU YELE “… Now center is firing up ….. all seem connected now sing “YHAGERE JegəNa ..”. and march forward .

  40. obsaa October 7, 2015 at 2:30 pm #

    The Oromos and other Cushites were living in East Africa mainly today’s Ethiopia long before Habashas came to the same region. You said Oromos started to exist in Oromia in 16thc. Even this is enough to conclude that Oromos precede Habashas which invaded Shewa in 19thc.

    @Senayt
    All the achievements the Oromo people are enjoying today are the results of the struggle of the Oromo people, not that of EPRDF.

  41. Buuqallee October 7, 2015 at 4:00 pm #

    Tolcha and senyt are different side of same coin. They are duplicated clones of the FASCIST MAFIA GROUP OF TPLF.

  42. Mario October 7, 2015 at 6:04 pm #

    Debate/discussion started with the above article and that immediately triggered a totally different issue, i. e., WHO IS WHO IN PRESENT DAY ETHIOPIA? I believe this is a great point we all should talk about without any fear or reservation and without being offensive to one another.

    I see two groups. Those who claim (also claimed by others) their ancestors are from the Middle East (example: Abyssinians, etc.) and those who claim they are the indigenous people (also labelled by others to be migrants from somewhere else (example: Oromos, etc.). The former call themselves Semitic people and the latter Cushitic people. I have no problem who originated from where. What bothers me a lot is the contradiction a few individuals from each group harbor and the manner in which they misinform their readers.

    Who are the Semitic and Cushitic peoples anyways? If we know who they are and where they came from, there is no great reason to fight on. Because both are immigrants. If we fight on who arrived first to present day Ethiopia regardless of the indigenous peoples that makes no sense to me. But, if the fight is between the immigrants (from the Middle East and elsewhere) and the indigenous peoples, that may make a lot of sense. It will be like the fight between white European immigrants against non-white immigrants and the indigenous peoples in present day United States.

    From what I know and understand, present day Ethiopia is a land/country of immigrants and indigenous peoples just like present day United States. If there is anyone out there who dismisses this fact, it is high time he/she educates himself/herself on this crucial issue.

    Having said the above:

    1. Let us cut out all the nonsense and discuss issues that are facts/true, genuine, undisputable and legitimate to move forward for a better understanding.

    2. Let us not dwell too much on past governments who “suppressed” Irreecha and give too much credit to current government for “allowing” Irreecha to re-flourish. All we need to do is learn from past wrong doings and try to make the current right/better. Both past and current governments had/have their hidden agenda that have little to do with the interest of Oromos or other peoples of Ethiopia. It is up to us to figure out what is good/right and bad/wrong for us.

    3. One day, whether we like it or not, Irreecha will be Ethiopians people “national holiday”, just like other national holidays. It is a great culture and deserves to be one of those national holidays. At that time, willingly/unwillingly we will celebrate Irreecha regardless of our ethnicity, religion, region, gender, creed, etc.

    4. The big question to ask is: As immigrants/indigenous people, do we envision to live in harmony by forming a democratic nation where freedom is cherished and human right and equality are respected?

    To all losers and ignorant individuals: Please keep your abuse of any kind to yourselves only. If you disagree with what I said, please disagree without being disagreeable. That is the beauty of a civilized debate.

    That’s all I say folks. As usual, if I am wrong, I stand to be corrected.

  43. Aliye October 7, 2015 at 9:00 pm #

    Mario a.k.a Senayt, K, Ezana

    After fighting on different fronts ( galas, 16th century migration, Oromo names, bla, bla, bla ) with different weapons ( Senayt, K, Ezana ), finally you came out to act as a mediator with your honey coated poison. Thank you and go on with your magical dancing around.

  44. Zeroed_In October 7, 2015 at 11:01 pm #

    ignoramus rearing its ugly head again:Ezana

    An inferiority complex is a sort of undervaluing one’s own and self. Mind you, this is a discourse on cultural revival, and celebration as to what is taking place, Irreecha’s to be exact – given that, are you accusing us, Oromo people, that we’re suffering from a’ cultural- cringes’, are you? If this is the case then, you really are Mr. simpleton and mediocre as such, for simply celebrating and upholding ones culture is just the opposite of what you intended to portray us to be. shall we say, you’re NOT even qualified as an ‘arm-chair-psychologist—go troll some-where- else, will you!!!

    “the term ‘Galla’ acquired crude stereotype —The Oromo did not, and do not call themselves ‘Galla’ and resist being so called. Out of over two thousand and eight hundred named Oromo clans or gosas— not a single one uses [‘Galla’] as a self-identification.”

    The above quote is from the latest book by Prof. Mohammed Hassen, on “The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700”

  45. Zeroed_OUT October 8, 2015 at 7:00 am #

    @Zeroed_In ….. you do not male sense …..what is wrong with you? grow up no body is disputing the right for any one as self or group or what have you not to celebrate their way of life be it devilish one as they do in different corner of the Oromo or others culture or other more meaningful seasonal celebration or other religious ones …. so make your point clear …. teh discussion is about who is who and going forward if we can or not live together or burn in hell while killing each other …. the choice is yours but majority of Ethiopians prefer to live in peace …

  46. Fulduraaf October 8, 2015 at 8:43 am #

    @

  47. Fulduraaf October 8, 2015 at 9:47 am #

    @ Mario,

    Thanks for putting your opinion forward for discussion. It is good for every one if people listen to each other and we all obey the rule of democracy. I can conclude you are from the school of thought of unity or status quo.

    I would like to differ from you. Things on the ground are completely different. Our question (oromos, somalis, sidamas, and the rest ) is not for cosmetic change like you suggested. You (habeshas) had the oportunity to lead the country for over a century. You could have built a democratic society. Instead you distroyed the history, culture and good governance if the other nations in ethiopia. You distroyed the the true history and built a distorted history. So it has to be corrected. We believe ethiopia is an empire. It is a colonial history. You even don’t accept this fact. Instead you try to demonize those who dare to raise the issue by saying “sinfegna” thinking. We are far, far away from each other.

    The habesha system has to be dismantled and the right of the nations in the empaire ethiopia must be granted. In short I am saying SELFDETERMINATION is the only peaceful solution to the ethiopian problem. If the habeshas are really honest and genuine for peace and democracy our demand is not that much a difficult. Our good example for selfdetermination as best solution in the modern politics is Canada and Britons. The ethiopians always give lame reasons not to accept the selfdetermination question.

    There is no turning back now. We will stick to our question of self determination even if it takes longer than than our wishes. The new generation is determined to die for freedom equality and democracy. Ethiopia at last will be like Yugoslavia. No force under the sky will stop the march for freedom.

    The only way out of this problem is to make it less distructive and i believe it is posible. Let the people decide their destination. Otherwise it is going to be “yeman bet ferso ye man yinoral ” .

  48. bullbythehorn October 8, 2015 at 11:22 am #

    @Fulduraaf

    Thank you for being forward for your hatred to the oneness of Ethiopia and reflect your views accordingly. So long as you lend yourself for further openness to give/take ideas to shape up the future of the people, in my book you are most welcome. But if you are one of those puppets of Ethiopian enemies like the likes of Arab countries including Egypt where on live TV they declared to use Oromo to divide the country we have no place for you. And believe you me you will have no way out. I say this simply because under no circumstances a violent approach to the issue will result in a peaceful existence of mini states in that part of the world.

    In my opinion one thing that your view lacks is pragmatic framework for going forward and establish a peaceful coexistence of people in whatever form. You seem to jump the gun before putting forward your view within the context of what is good for the people. where does this come from …. “yeman bet ferso ye man yinoral ” … simply put you have a deep seating desire to set, if you get your way, on fire and destroy lives and livelihood of the people of the horn. And this in my book will make you numero uno enemy of Ethiopia and it diverse people.

    I am not hear to deny or argue on past issues. History always has a distorted view of facts depending on the perspective of the authors stand with respect to events.

    Take for instance the issue of the minilik massacre of various oromos in different parts of the south and east. Some who want to re-write history argue that the issue is ethnicity issue and go as far as claiming 5 million Oromos were massacred or wiped out making it a genocide of biblical proportion … think again 5 million …. the size of the population of the whole of Ethiopia including some neighboring countries does not add to the total that allegedly were massacred during the time frame when this event took place.

    Others who pick on this issue … including some Oromo scholars write the story differently emphasizing the role of Shoa Oromos and put some of the killing attributed to the in fighting within Oromos and some others killings on the process of consolidating the Ethiopian kingdom whose seat happened to be a multi-ethnic pot called shoa that includes Gurages, Amharas, Oromos and others.

    By the same taken if you take the cultural imposition of one culture on the other, it has different facets depending on who you talk whose history book you are reading.

    Some put the institutional strength and record keeping culture of the Orthodox church to have played a major role in imposing its own will and power on the people rather than is being motivated by poor Amharas who were and are still relegated to the bottom of the poverty pit by any measure than any other ethnic group in the country. or in some cases even in the world ( search on line Aljazeera documentary on this if you do not believe )

    Others on the other hand put this as the work of the Amharas even if they do not back this up with tangible evidence such as the glorious development of the amharas at the expense of others or the looting of resources to develop the north. But still it is being held as history by some quarters of the elite including you.

    Note that during successive rulers including the dabot dynasty of the Sidamas lead by Yodit Gudit who ruled the country for 40 years, the Agew dynasty, the Yedju Oromos rule from their capital city Gondor, Yohanse from Mekele and others for one or another reason chose Orthodox and Amharic as their governing rule tool. This note that is not the desire of the Amhara ethnic group. If you ask me I do not think that they give a toss if their culture is used or not by the government as an official means of communication or and way of ruling. Note also that as recently as King Haile … if you prob the ethnicity of most of the rulers they are not Amhara at all … take Haile for instance he is a mix or Gurage ( who is a mulem) and a a shoa oromo.

    Now as I said I do not give a toss for the past … the history whether justifiable or not within the context of the timed framed socio-economic-political context has already happened and the past is the past. One thing I believe strongly of the relevance of that past is with respect to sieving our current practice be it culture wise, resource sharing, or language and others to accommodate a more pragmatic framework acceptable by all to live peacefully going forward.

    Beyond this dwelling on the past and wrongly shaping the past along ethnic lines is a recipe for more disaster … so if you have common sense Mr Fulduraaf talk substance rather than a rhetoric and echoing the ill-intention of the security apparatus of some quarters of the Arab world including I might add ISIS and its evil branches in the part of the corner of the horn ..

  49. Milkessa October 8, 2015 at 1:39 pm #

    @bullbythehorn

    Really? Are you trying to associate Oromo cause with Egypt and ISI? We start opposing our oppressors long before that. We do not even remotely related man. We are not from south Arabia.
    “I am not hear to deny or argue on past issues” , but you just did. You believe Arabs are against Ethiopia, I agree and that is why I do not trust Aljazeera.
    ***I , and most Oromos that I know, NEVER accused Amhara People! but the ruling class. You said “If you ask me I do not think that they give a toss if their culture is used or not by the government as an official means of communication or and way of ruling”. I seriously doubt that. The Amhara mass is behind the group that struggle to bring the old, one language one religion empire back.

    Have a good day.

  50. Aliye October 8, 2015 at 3:01 pm #

    Bull by the horn

    Unfortunately, I prefer to call you a duddie, or at leat a crummie which is harmless than gamboling around by denying the atrocities which have been done on Oromos. Defending and hiding the crimes will not free you and your likes from the conscience stricken situation.

    Most original Amharas ( Gojam and Gondar/ Amhara Kilil ) are not interested to confront the majority of Ethiopian people in the name of your so called ” Unity ” . It is well known that the young offsprings of old Amhara ruling class cannot accept the reality to be at the same level with those people who once were under their boots. This Amhara ruling class pseudo ” Unity ” has killed millions of Oromos, evicted them off their land and exposed them to be the second citizens on their own land by settler Amharas. So, who will trust such people in future ? Once bitten, no trusting again.

  51. Laaloo October 8, 2015 at 5:44 pm #

    Dear fellow Oromos,

    Ignore these bloody fools such as Ezana and co. The losers had been lying through their teen and denigrating the great Oromo people and continue to do so. Erreecha has nothing to do with Ethiopia, it is one of the symbols of Oromo civilisation, end of story. The Ezana’s MUST get used to the beautiful Oromo or else they can go and hung themselves. The bad news for the losers is that Erreecha is UNESCO world heritage. Now, what the hell does the Habasha flag (green, red and yellow) do from the Errecha site at the holly Hora Bushooftu? Stop desecrating our beloved Erreecha. The owners of that bloody flag are racists who had failed to eliminate Erreecha.

    We Oromos should move forward in liberating our land from the scumbags. Then, we will not hear this gibberish from crazed Habashas every time we start to assert our rights. Ignore, ignore and ignore the fools.

    Viva la Oromia!

  52. JustFYI October 8, 2015 at 6:08 pm #

    To all,

    Recently I traveled to Africa and met old friends.

    Before I go to the main issue that prompted me to post this on this site a little info about me might give you why I was meant to write this on this site ..

    Without revealing too much, I am very old …old enough to see all regimes since the time of the King when I was a young vibrant high school teacher stationed in Eritrea which is now an independent country. Originally, I came from Jimma. Though I am an Oromo by birth and all my family members are Oromos, my up bringing and all my families livelihood was very intertwined with the then culture and way of life of the feudal system. My grand pa was one of the land lords who serve the king under the title of Fitawrari. Though he was well enough at least to provide us with adequate shelter and lively hood by then standard and we were by all measures better than all the neighborhoods we were not equal in every sense of the word with our peers who are from North. In particular I remember the district policy head who is from Eritrea the way he treated my grand pa.

    After being stationed in Eritrea I lived there most of my life and I was assimilated to the culture and system, converted to Orthodox and married an Eritrean who thanks God has given me 11 beautiful children and made me a great grand pa with more than 30 grand and great grand children.

    Now to my point … in my visit I went to see old friends from Eritrea. We lived now for a long time together they consider me as their own. Of course now and then when there is an issue I remind them that I am an Oromo. In our conversation one thing lead to another and the issue of OLF was raised. Even if I do not want to see Ethiopia dismembered into different mini states, I believe that the Oromo people have suffered a lot under all regimes. The anger and emotional roll-coaster I went through during my childhood when my grand pa was mistreated by simple regular policy guard even if he out ranks him by all measures of the then organizational hierarchy of the system has left a deep rooted scar in my heart that I will never forget, even if at this age where no more than few years are left of my life before I leave this miserable world, for me and my Oromo people.

    One thing that make me sad and prompted me to write this is the way the Oromos are still being used to promote others interest. All our resources are used by others .. and still they want to use us … my dear friends from Eritrea who I consider them as family have a strong believe and conviction that Eritrea should not be separated from Ethiopia. In principle I agree with them though it is not for me to say or is it my place to pas opinion on this … but what annoyed me and emotionally upset me is the reason they put forward why Eritrea should not be independent ….. the main reason is not that they do not want to have a small independent country that proved to be nonviable depending on who you talk nor it is because they love Ethiopia …. but the main reason is Eritreans had lost all the opportunity and access to the resources rich south and Oromia. When I heard this I did not say anything …. really there nothing to say, even I did not bother to remind them that I am an Oromo … my conclusion from this was silent one without uttering a word I thought that no matter what the northern people are not after unity or equal society where all Ethiopians live in a fairer society, they are only after our resources simple …. so my children Oromos please be smart … from what I understood the OLF is under the firm grip of Eritreans they are manipulating it to their own end for satisfying their never ending crave for resources …. we need to be much more smarter … if you listen to me try to be smart you are in a much better advantageous position in all aspects be it population size, resources, geographical area and strategic location both economically and socially all you need to do is to strengthen your political position … if possible go for the whole Ethiopia and assert yourselves in the driving seat if this is not tenable then fight for your independence or negotiate a better deal for our people …. you are still being used by the northerners … sometimes I think that God made as the way he did may be he wants us to serve the northerners … I know this is an insane thought but at this old age with all the anger in me I am left with nothing but to be spiritual ….. and do not blame me .. I see no prospect of a hope seed being sowed in the horizon … I think this generation has lost it again …. if I am not right proof me wrong …. stop the walking and start the walking others are already ahead of you to bring another oppressor machine … this time the trend looks like an alliance between Eritreans some Tigreans and the Amharas …. and the Afars …. we Oromos once again are left in ruins … they will come to us to organize a puppet another OPDO at some point ….. I am sad really sad …. this generation has also lost it again …..

  53. JustFYI October 8, 2015 at 6:22 pm #

    To all,

    Recently I traveled to Africa and met old friends.

    Before I go to the main issue that prompted me to post this on this site a little info about me might give you why I was meant to write this on this site ..

    Without revealing too much, I am very old …old enough to see all regimes since the time of the King when I was a young vibrant high school teacher stationed in Eritrea which is now an independent country. Originally, I came from Jimma. Though I am an Oromo by birth and all my family members are Oromos, my up bringing and all my families livelihood was very intertwined with the then culture and way of life of the feudal system. My grand pa was one of the land lords who serve the king under the title of Fitawrari. Though he was well enough at least to provide us with adequate shelter and lively hood by then standard and we were by all measures better than all the neighborhoods we were not equal in every sense of the word with our peers who are from North. In particular I remember the district policy head who is from Eritrea the way he treated my grand pa.

    After being stationed in Eritrea I lived there most of my life and I was assimilated to the culture and system, converted to Orthodox and married an Eritrean who thanks God has given me 11 beautiful children and made me a great grand pa with more than 30 grand and great grand children.

    Now to my point … in my visit I went to see old friends from Eritrea. We lived now for a long time together they consider me as their own. Of course now and then when there is an issue I remind them that I am an Oromo. In our conversation one thing lead to another and the issue of OLF was raised. Even if I do not want to see Ethiopia dismembered into different mini states, I believe that the Oromo people have suffered a lot under all regimes. The anger and emotional roll-coaster I went through during my childhood when my grand pa was mistreated by simple regular policy guard even if he out ranks him by all measures of the then organizational hierarchy of the system has left a deep rooted scar in my heart that I will never forget, even if at this age where no more than few years are left of my life before I leave this miserable world, for me and my Oromo people.

    One thing that make me sad and prompted me to write this is the way the Oromos are still being used to promote others interest. All our resources are used by others .. and still they want to use us … my dear friends from Eritrea who I consider them as family have a strong believe and conviction that Eritrea should not have been separated from Ethiopia. In principle I agree with them though it is not for me to say or is it my place to pass opinion on this … but what annoyed me and emotionally upset me is the reason they put forward why Eritrea should not have been independent ….. the main reason is not that they do not want to have a small independent country that proved to be nonviable depending on who you talk nor it is because they love Ethiopia …. but the main reason is Eritreans had lost all the opportunity and access to the resource rich south and Oromia. When I heard this I did not say anything …. really there nothing to say, even I did not bother to remind them that I am an Oromo … my conclusion from this was silent one without uttering a word I thought that no matter what the northern people are not after unity or equal society where all Ethiopians live in a fairer society, they are only after our resources simple …. so my children Oromos please be smart … from what I understood the OLF is under the firm grip of Eritreans they are manipulating it to their own end for satisfying their never ending crave for resources …. we need to be much more smarter … if you listen to me try to be smart you are in a much better advantageous position in all aspects be it population size, resources, geographical area and strategic location both economically and socially all you need to do is to strengthen your political position … if possible go for the whole Ethiopia and assert yourselves in the driving seat if this is not tenable then fight for your independence or negotiate a better deal for our people …. you are still being used by the northerners … sometimes I think that God made as the way he did may be he wants us to serve the northerners … I know this is an insane thought but at this old age with all the anger in me I am left with nothing but to be spiritual ….. and do not blame me .. I see no prospect of a hope seed being sowed in the horizon … I think this generation has lost it again …. if I am not right proof me wrong …. stop the talking and start the walking others are already ahead of you to bring another oppressor machine … this time the trend looks like an alliance between Eritreans some Tigreans and the Amharas …. and the Afars …. we Oromos once again are left in ruins … they will come to us to organize a puppet another OPDO at some point ….. I am sad really sad …. this generation has also lost it again …..

  54. Fulduraaf October 8, 2015 at 10:15 pm #

    JustFYI

    I read your posting. I really put myself in your place and felt bad for your emotional suffering about your people. Thank you for introducing yourself too. I am an oromo who has lived in Asmara few years too. At the time , eventhoug, I believed in my identity and intriduced myself as oromo not habesha. Eritreans become friends with oromo than with habeshas. They trusted us. They knew we are not eritreans enemy, eventhough, the majority of foot solders fifhting the rebels (shabia) are oromos. Most of them were politically savvy, they all knew the difference b/n habesha and oromo.

    Eritrean government as a country has its own interest. We respect that. We also have our interest. It is upto us to protect the best interest of our people. Our grand PA , this is how the politics works. The most important thing is to identify your interst. Our interest is to free oromos. Since early 1970 eritrea has been instrumental in suporting our political organization , OLF. One thing that should be clear for all of us who have good faith in our fighting for freedom is that it only and only the oromos ourself who are responsible for WALABUMMAA.

    TRUST, BUT VERIFY, SAID RONALD REAGAN. As much as i wanted to trust the ‘grand pa’s posting it also made me ask some qoestions. I would have preferred to hear from him that encourages our young generation to fight for oromo freedom. Instead he advised us to leave eritrea and reject their suport. He is more worried about G7 than TPLF. HE expressed his wishes that he doen’t want to see ethiopia dismembered. We have never been full member of ethiopia in the first place. Oromos existential threat at the moment comes from TPLF NOT FROM G7 OR SHABIA. The new wiyane agenda is to create suspicion b/n the OLF and G7. I prefer to fight wuyane on the side of G7 first and then the weaker G7. Thanks.

  55. Zeroed_IN October 8, 2015 at 10:22 pm #

    Zeroed_OUT aka tuned OUT wrote:

    “be it devilish one as they do in different corner of the Oromo”

    FYI< “devilish” and Oromo are oxymoron!!!

    “ Devilish” or “Devil” is a loaded term, at least in this case — how about be specific and elaborate on it, then, I would respond in kind, trust me :XD
    Besides, I did answer your rhetorical questions, and it seems you’re now in a different mode, in shifting the gear to temper- tantrum. To begin with, you’ve never expected any opposing views or different take on the subject under discussion, other than your distasteful- diatribe, which is obviously palatable to your NAFTANYAA political views of the world.

    Grow-up? What a despicable thing to say from someone who is imbecile and proven her/him self as such by clearly reflecting gutter politics of the ancient regime.
    Make my point clear? I should have stated as a caveat, at the end OF my piece, DID I MAKE MYSELF CLEAR, no wonder you tuned yourself out :xd

  56. Zeroed_IN October 8, 2015 at 10:26 pm #

    bullbythehorn aka bully of the horn

    “your hatred to the oneness of Ethiopia”

    Recently, there has been a strong global trend towards federal government as oppose to unitary one – a’hadu sir’aat. In a number of countries, unitary systems have been sharply curtailed or scrapped altogether in some cases, as more and more nations and nationalities demands self-determination, to look after their own state of affairs, such as Oromo people demanding restructuring of the system in order to control their local and regional state of affairs, in a way-forward, without compromising the peace and stability of the country.
    if NOT this doable arrangement, and a lot of its shortcomings at stands now, then, the only option left is to bail out of the arrangement, as a result of irreconcilable differences—one have also must take into account that country’s particular culture and physical characteristics in determining the type of government, instead of insisting on non-functioning ‘A’hadu sir’aat’ form of government and became defunct, why NOT try something different and proven system in accommodating all its citizenry, for a change in having their sayings.

    “puppets of Ethiopian enemies like the likes of Arab countries including Egypt”

     heard of proxy war and its agents—so does all countries resort to it, in order to protect their interest or seeking one, including your beloved “emama Ethiopia”. Besides, no one have a permanent enemy but interest. If tomorrow Egypt gets what she wants, it’s highly- likely, they would mend their difference and eliminate animosity with any regime on power and that is the beast nature of geo-politics. Until then, they would choose to side with non-state actors or states in the region, depending on the fluidity and dynamics of it – the variables as a factor in the game-play in the region varies and depends from actor to actor..


    Thus, it would be wise to think and resolve the issue that would be conducive to being exploited, such as: how to accommodate and address the grievance of the Grande-Oromo –nation, that would solve your problem and the nightmare, is my advice

    “So long as you lend yourself for further openness to give/take ideas”

     the whole exercise of give and take is thrown out the window, when you keep on insisting on my way or no-high-way , which might lead to an irreconcilable differences, and the unintended consequence would not bode-well for the “unity”, would it? Have a dialogue NOT a monologue.

    “a violent approach to the issue will result in a peaceful existence”

    This sounds to me like a chicken –egg argument, if you ask me. How is it plausible that you deny ones existent as Oromo and Oromoness and then expect a peaceful existence, while killing, maiming, torturing and imprisonment for those who’ve resisted the oppressive and its tyrannical system in place?
    Why paranoia and sense of nightmare in your part when it comes to Oromo people? to live amongst you as Oromo—would you expect them to sit back and take the abuse in folded arms or you pick-up arms and fight for your god given rights? The choice is obvious, you’d have done the same thing if you’re in our shoes! Notwithstanding, what blinded you in the first place, the mantra of ‘a’hadu sir’aat’ yet your ethnicity dominating all aspect of social, cultural, economic and political life of others, what a “fallacious arguments” – logically unsound- and mumbo-jumbo thing to say.

    “… simply put you have a deep seating desire to set, if you get your way, on fire and destroy lives and livelihood of the people of the horn. And this in my book will make you numero uno enemy of Ethiopia and it diverse people”

    The above is unfounded, foolhardily bold and unsubstantiated claim in your part—my only read and take on this one is: contrary to your pretense, you and your fore-fathers systems in the past and as well as the present one are: NUMREO-UNO nemesis in the region, and would definitely create your demise in the process, at the end of the day, if NOT rectified on time – if you don’t put an effort out there to resolve it, for once and for good, then expect the bad omen on its way.
    Your stubborn stance of uncompromising moves for peaceful co-existence amongst all, based on free and democratic system is the culprit—salient point here is: are Oromo people the bullies in the horn or the so called champions of greater HABASHAA kingdom by any means necessary crowd? Who’ve created chaos and mayhem in Oromiyaa,, Somalia, Eritrea and in Ethiopia itself? I leave that answer for the readers and the public at large, the day it would be sorted out on their own accord – that is out of their free-will, with NO coercion in place, not otherwise.

    “a recipe for more disaster “

    >>> conclusion:

    ‘lam balwelebet kubet leqema’ = baka loon hiin’ole faltii barabada jirta

    I don’t see any ISIS problem in the country so far, unless you intend to bring them to the fore by your unintended actions or lack of action in resolving domestic issues: such as stopping interfering in religious state of affairs, among other things, rather than remaining secular and building institutions that caters to secularism, in which, yet, everyone worships as they see fit and live by their choice, you prefer to impose your belief systems on others, or undermine it for your own selfish political and economic gains, what a pity to say the least!!!!

  57. Mario October 9, 2015 at 1:27 am #

    @Fulduraaf;

    It is unfortunate that you mis-labeled me “Habesha” and also indicated that I am anti-Oromo “self-determination” and/or “independence”. May be you thought labeling me with that buzz word of the day will silence me from speaking my mind. That is not me. My track record and the above comment of mine tell it all. Probably, it is my pen-name, “Mario” that enabled you to say so. What is in name anyways? Personally, I don’t see anything wrong in being “Habesha” or called “Habesha”, just like being an Oromo or called Oromian for that matter. “Habesha” is a name that represents a whole group of people that number in millions. Please be mindful that, I am not speaking against or for these group of people, but the truth.

    The main message in my comment was not about what you mentioned in the first place, but about the massive misinformation, deception, fabrication and lack knowledge/facts surrounding “who is who in present day Ethiopia”, i. e., who is “CUSHITC or SEMITIC?” I did not bring this issue up, but responded accordingly to an old “myth” that is circulating around here and elsewhere as a new finding and used by a few to flavor their write up. By the way, why did you shy away from saying a word on those two magical/mystical words, Cushitic and Semitic?

    As far as the wish of the few to see Ethiopia disintegrate is concerned, it is actually no individual’s wish, but the power/will of the people to govern that. If people want to be together, that is within their reach. If people want to go their own way, that is their will and right too. The most troubling part, however, is how to do and how to achieve that.

    As I mentioned earlier, I am not against the wish and aspiration of my own people. However, I am against individuals who make noise here and there in the name of the people without realizing what they say and do is detrimental to the survival of the people they claim to represent. Here are a few of my reasons as to why I oppose the clueless individuals who unknowingly or knowingly cause unrepairable damage to our people and country.

    1. Personally, I do not want to see Oromia to be built based on fiction/narrative by the same people who advocate that Ethiopia was built on false premises or foundations.

    2. Personally, I do not believe the current struggle or trend will bring the long awaited self-determination or independence and guarantee Oromos with the freedom, justice, equality, democracy or peace they have been longing for. Mishap and misfortunes in this regard happened to many “self- determined” or “independent” countries in many parts of the world and Oromia cannot be strictly an exception. Simply put, we must know exactly what we are wishing for.

    3. Based on the land mass and population size, Oromos can be on top and rule over Ethiopia and Ethiopians. If we wish for something, we should always wish for something that is bigger. Or, we may ask ourselves, if minority woyanes rule over Ethiopia and Ethiopians, why can’t Oromos? Why feel incapable of doing the big thing out there? A few might think this is a plot to put Oromia under perpetual exploitation of its natural resources. I believe this is one of those misconceptions and unnecessary fear that is paralyzing us to this day. First, let us all fight by all means so that people will grab the political power and the rest will follow automatically.

    4. Having said the above, I also strongly believe that, there has never been Ethiopia without Oromos in the past and there will never be one in the future. I am saying this to all those individuals who dismiss this fact blindly and to all those with a sound thinking and a bit of an idea on Oromos past history and their future place in Ethiopia and the horn region.

    May God/Allah give us the wisdom and courage to do the right thing and tell the truth as it is!!!

  58. Abdiisa Oncho October 9, 2015 at 8:00 am #

    @Mario

    1. Ethiopia is built not only on the fiction of Three thousand years of independent existence but also as an empire through a bloody colonial conquest at the end of the 19th Century. Read Chapters 6&7 of Mekuria Bulcha’s book Contours of the Ancient and Emergent Oromo Nation: Dilemmas in the Ethiopian Politics of Nation- and State Building published by Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, Cape Town, 2011. I am sure you will either accept the truth or at least keep quiet regarding the nature of the Ethiopian state and the demands that the Oromo are making about an independent state of their own.

    2. When you say “Oromos can be on top and rule Ethiopia and other Ethiopians. We …should Always wish for something that is bigger” you mean the Oromo elite should replace the Habasha elite and dominate the other peoples in the empire; take what belongs to others and imprison, kill, send or them into exile if they resist. Do you want the Oromo to do that really? How would the Oromo people profit from that? I am puzzled by your assertions.

    3. What has the failure of other peoples who became independent to do with the Oromo case? What about those who succeeded and who are by far greater in number than the unsuccessful cases? Your trick to scare the Oromo will not work. Just listen to what the qubee generation is saying.

    Oncho

  59. Fulduraaf October 9, 2015 at 11:37 am #

    @ Mario, just few lines for the issue of semetic and cushitic. I personally believe all africans are cushitic. Habeshas claim to be semetic is a distorted history and a self ldentity crisis. I think many have come to accept the reality now. Another question for you. In your writting you don’t want to discuss about selfdetermination. If you really believe that the majority oromos accept unity why don’t we settle on selfdetermination as a best and peaceful solution ?

  60. K October 9, 2015 at 4:33 pm #

    @Fulduraaf YES YES YES I agree now with you so we all are cushitic and hallelujah we start living in peace together ….. Center is going to be the strongest of all the time is approaching … keep singing “YHAGERE JegəNa ..”. and march forward we all are Ethiopians at last thank you all .. in particular to Fulduraaf the great …

  61. Mosisa October 9, 2015 at 6:13 pm #

    Fascinating exchanges, one and all. The civility of some commenters is commendable. It’s good to use power of reasoning and force of argument, based on evidence, as a vehicle to put message across. Well done.

    First: let me thank the pre-eminent Oromian and foremost scholar prof. Bultcha for all his endeavours in promoting the Oromo cause as a scholar as well as political activist. If every Oromo scholar performed fraction of prof. Bultcha’s deeds, we will be on different horizon in our journey towards our freedom. So I say kudos to this towering Oromian.

    I just wanted to say few words regarding the conversation: Oromian independence Vs. Habasha rule/colonialism over Oromia.

    I don’t mind, Abyssinians who write on ayyaantuu and say, in boldfaced, whether you like it or not, you are going to be rule by Habeshas. These are people who used to say to everyone, in any political commotion, “Enanetem keabatochachu Atishalum, egnam keabotochachin ananism”. Amaras who used to say this, they now have to contend with the reality of Tigre rule. For the Tigres, their turn will come soon enough. Talking to, or arguing with such people is a fruitless exercise.

    What is unfathomable to me is, though, people who claim they are Oromos but who operate as an ambassador of and representative of Habeshas to Oromia and Oromian, which is presenting the case of Abyssinian rule over Oromia. They argue with, but if needed they try to cajole, coax and persuade Oromians. They extol and justify Abyssinian rule over Oromia. What inexplicable situation? Their argument is always “living together is good or better”. What comes to my mind when I read the comment of such Oromos is Prof Jalata’s concept of “cognitive liberation”. They need it.

    I know no Oromo political organisation include OLF, or any eminent Oromo individuals who people listen to, who has claimed living together, per see, is bad and they don’t want to live with anyone. In fact, Oromos way of life is based on mutual understanding/respect with all god creatures including all flora and fauna, let alone human kind. We are virtuous, honest and generous people. On the other hand, our virtuosity and honesty is also our Achilles heels that made us susceptible to colonialism.

    The question is, on whose term is living together formulate? In my view, discussion on living together with the Abyssinian rules is outdated, passé, obsolete. Because, figuratively speaking, the Habeshas by their own actions has “burned the bridge” when it comes to living together. They forced us to choice the only option available. Which is fighting for free and independent Oromia.

    When nationalist Oromians talk about free independence Oromia, this isn’t just political theory which is theorised by armchair political theorist as an academic exercises. It’s deadly serious where our kids and notable Oromians are being killed for it. Oromians nationalists are endeavouring to have a sovereign political decision make power. In his book of 1983 “nations and nationalism”, Ernest Gellner (1925–1995), philosopher and social anthropologist who was a critic of some aspect of nationalism said, “Nationalism is primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent.” It “is a theory of political legitimacy.” Oromians are fighting for political legitimacy and sovereign control over Oromia. So it’s a serious matter.

    Look at what TPLF thugs are doing in central Oromian, namely Finfinnee. They are behaving like Kamikaze aviators. For those of us who don’t know what Kamikazes are; they were Japan’s military pilot in the World War II, who were special suicide attack unit with aircraft loaded with explosives and making a deliberate suicidal crash on an enemy target attacking the allied naval vessels in the Pacific campaign of World War II. Their action was intended to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks. At the end, the Kamikazes were destroyed and Japan lost the war and surrender to the allied forces. Kamikaze attack is, hence, used in figure of speech, as futile exercise where lives are lost for a pointless and unachievable goals. That is what TPLF is doing. They can kill people, destroy properties, and generally creating pogroms in Oromia, but in the final analysis TPLF thugs fate will be like the Kamikaze aviators. No doubt about it.

    Hence this debate, discussion or deliberation about Oromian independence VS Abyssinia rule is totally waste of time. Oromia will be independent, sooner or later. Sugar coating poison doesn’t work for these savvy and feisty generating of Oromos. For evidence, just listen to the young generation artists and their songs. The yearning and the quest for freedom is cooking and simmering in Oromia and nobody is going to stop it.

  62. Ezana October 9, 2015 at 8:28 pm #

    So, who changed name Gala to Oromo? I heard it was a German master. Tigrai has been tigrai since the Axumite Kingdom!

    • Owld October 10, 2015 at 2:35 am #

      @Ezana ! Do know that Gojam , Gondar origin is Oromo land including Axum which was Oromo Qaauu constitutions place. You are outsider you invaded our country. The true History will come out soon or later. You are ignorant no one any more want waste their time with you. You have no place in Africa. You scare of Oromo people than tigre.

      You know yourself you are the one who are destroying Ethiopia more than tigre by not admitting your ancestors mistake and accepting the reality the true owner of the land Oromo people.
      If Ethiopian disintegrate by what tigre tplf is doing the more blame will go to Amhara. They simply watching when Ethiopia is in the cross road.

      The current generation has no love for Ethiopian. It is not their mistake. It is simply Amaras’ mistake but not all Amhara we are saying Ahmara Elite. Who simply enjoying when tplf tigre evicting Oromo people from their land. Us if tplf tigre will give them the Oromo land in reality tplf tigre is destroying Ethiopia and disintegrating. The current generation is in pain. If there is no Devine or a miracle intervention Ethiopian will disintegrate in your current stand Simply this your idea doesn’t take you any where. You will regrate for ever.

  63. GoodNews October 9, 2015 at 8:42 pm #

    @Mosisa
    You have boldly concluded that the way forward is an independent oromia if I got the gist of your argument correct, though I had great difficulty in understanding exactly which one you are up for in your argument, as it seems there are a number of contradictory half-baked assertions in you discussion.
    You started with some colonialism and Abyssinian mumbo-jumbo fairy tale story as usual after lip-servicing the greatness of the paper and proceeded to justify the independence of Oromia by accusing oromo pretenders as if you are given the right to be the judge and jury to decide who is Oromo and who is not. The deep seated hatred that is incepted in you and the like in the early 70’s have humongously grew and have blinded you to see the reality in a more pragmatic fashion.
    As far as you are concerned anyone who has different idea than the chaos that you advocate for is Abyssinian or anti-Oromo who is desperately trying to stop the independence of Oromia. The funny thing is you seem to consciously or unconsciously accept the reality of living together by posing the question …”on whose term is living together formulate? “ and further asserting that no Oromo organization or prominent Oromos said or advocated that living together is bad and then the bomb shell .. you coat your real motive with jest and on one hand you seem to reach out for living together opening the door for amicable settlement and on the other you show your real self and invite the mother of all evils to start another round of killing by concluding “ ….. Hence this debate, discussion or deliberation about Oromian independence VS Abyssinia rule is totally waste of time. Oromia will be independent, sooner or later. “
    Good for you but for me and others that you label us as “Abyssinians” we have a different thinking … I will say it again even if it annoys you ….. whether you like it or not we will fight for all stake holders and get a good deal for Oromo people. As an Oromo that is my dream to have a peaceful settlement that will not lead the region into a perpetual conflict … that takes into account the socio-economic-cultural-political and resource distribution into consideration and come up with a framework that suits all … a deal that will not be used by all our enemies to promote their national interest … the case in point for instance Egypt … I know some lunatic on this forum has posted that it is Okay for Oromo to collaborate with Egypt to get its independence … well what can I say except this is not in our blood … to handover our brothers to Arabs so that some lunatic can come to power to rule a much weakened state that will be a puppet of Arabs and be a YES government to whatever they order to guard their national interest … I am confident that the majority of Ethiopians including Oromo’s will never be used by others to promote their national interest … and your and the like dream will remain dream … whether you like it or not (yes again ) whatever issue we have will be settled peacefully by the people for the people by all stakeholders …
    … Unlike you who pose himself as a desperate megalomania despotic lunatic any settlement of any sort going forward will have the say of the people.
    ….Unlike your way which is tantamount to that of comical radio show have I got news for you …. our way is to empower the people to have a leeway and have a say in the affairs of their country
    …unlike you we are with the very people you claim to represent but emphatically deny their right to have their say in the matter that affects them deeply. That is what OLF was doing in the last 50 or so years … see where that got it now ….
    Now for the good news …new generation is taking over … from the writing of your piece you smell like the 70’s … and for you and the like the good news is retire gracefully and do not meddle with the affairs of the Oromo people …. you have already done an incalculable damage under OLF .. that we are now picking up to repair the damage

  64. Senayt October 9, 2015 at 9:01 pm #

    fulduraaf
    if you bring 98,000,000/ all people of ethiopia near zalanbesa boarder and ordered them to urinate towards eritrea , all the five million people of eritrea would be flooded or washed away in to red sea.
    So, why do n,t we try it ? That is the best way to whiped out the from the face of the earth and we live peacefully forever.

  65. Senayt October 9, 2015 at 9:06 pm #

    correction
    whipped out them

  66. JA October 9, 2015 at 11:19 pm #

    @ Goodnews (BADNEWS) what ever,

    Any lay person can read your mind through your posting that you are an anti oromo individual. You have no idea about oromo history. You might believe like your forfathers that oromos don’t have history. I can safely conclude you are one of the erand boys of wuyane. I fully accept your right of freedom expression but you will not get away free with it. I mean you will responded in kind too.

    I don’t believe in political correctness with the old enemies like you. We will work with any nation who are willing to work with us. It is the enlightment age my friend. We know Minilik and yohanis the fourth acted their crime of genocide on on oromo and the southern people with thelp they received from foreign countries or enemies of black africans. Atse kaleb was converyed to christianity to get guns inexchange from the then supperpower country, Bezintine . From that time on words habeshas claimed to be semetic which they used for centuries to get arm suport from the westerners.When it comes to our time you don’t like it . You have to pay for what you have done to us. Whether you believe it or not their will never be peace for wuyane in ethiopia. Oromos are ready to get into alliance with G7 and others domestically and neiboring countries whose interest are better served without wiyane. Even the westerners are ready to get rid of wuyane now. I understand this is BAD NEWS FOR YOU.

  67. Mario October 9, 2015 at 11:59 pm #

    @Abdiisa Oncho

    Thank you for MIS-understanding me. I never said Ethiopia was built based on facts/truth only. Please re-read my comment. And, I personally don’t want to see Oromia to be built in the same manner. “Independent” Ethiopia was also in name, if you know what I am talking about.

    Do you believe in majority or minority rule? If you believe in majority rule, I told you what Oromos should do in the future. That is one natural law, i. e., submit to the majority rule, democratic or undemocratic. If you believe in minority rule, you better keep away from the rest of us and stay with woyanes and their lovers.

    You asked, ” What has the failure of other peoples who became independent to do with the Oromo case?” I was actually talking about those who became “independent” and ended up failed states. That was my warning. Do you really want to see Oromia fail? You must also expect the unexpected when expecting the expected.

    Sorry for being brief. There is no need to make a mount out of a molehill.

  68. Mario October 10, 2015 at 12:02 am #

    Correction:

    Please read, “There is no need to make a MOUNTAIN out of a molehill.” Thanks.

  69. Mario October 10, 2015 at 1:54 am #

    Fulduraaf:

    You said and I quote, “I personally believe all africans are cushitic. Habeshas claim to be semetic is a distorted history and a self ldentity crisis”. With all due respect, I disagree with you.

    First of all, do you really know where the names/categories, Cushitic and Semitic originated from? I believe your knowledge of those two group of people should begin from there. According to your statement, if ALL Africans are Cushitic, what makes Habeshas non-Cushitic? Are you saying that Habeshas are not Africans? How about those Africans called Nilotics? Where exactly do they fit? Do you read your contradiction?

    If Habeshas claim to be “Semitic”, who gave Africans or Oromos the classification Cushitic people? Is Cushitic Africans/Oromos self-naming? Many people (Countries) around the world claim to have descended from the “lost” tribes of Israel. The Cushitic and Semitic people are two of those. Do you dispute this or do you have something else to tell us? Also, if Habeshas suffer from “identity crisis” because they claim to be Semitic, how could Africans and Oromos escape from such a crisis? Another fat contradiction!

    In my first response to such assertions, I suggested we cut out all the nonsense surrounding this issue in our current and future debates. We are in the 21 century and it is time to say no to stone-age thinking/mentality and modern day distortions and falsifications. We have better and urgent things to do. Don’t we?

  70. FF October 10, 2015 at 2:33 am #

    @ Mario, let me be clear, when i said africa i mean sub saharan africa. I hope habeshas (amharas and tigirawai) are included. If you remeber our high school ethiopian history we learned habeshas are semetic oromos somalis and the southerners are all kushitics. As the recent research shows habeshas are also kushitic. There is no race diference b/n oromo and habesha. Their semetic claim is the usual distortion of history which indicates their inferiority complexof being black. Thus the KING said we are whites .

  71. Mario October 11, 2015 at 4:03 am #

    FF:
    You said, “… when i said africa i mean sub saharan africa. I hope habeshas (amharas and tigirawai) are included”. What is the hope for? What do you think they miss if they are not Cushitic or included? It is either they are or they are not. Period!

    BTW, you and I agreed that our past history was with a lot of impurity. If the ruling classes claim to be white, they may have a reason. But, that reason should not convince us we are of white race too. As Africans, we can be of one race or of mixed race. This is a fact no one can dismiss. I never heard the “King” (if you are talking about Emperor Haile Selassie) claiming to be white. I also never heard him claiming to be an Oromo either. But, many know well that he is an extract of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage ethnic groups. Check it out!

    If “Habeshas”, Oromos and Sub-Saharan Africans are Cushitic according to the “new research” finding you mentioned, we are at least one bad reason short to fight on. That could narrow down our differences to live together as countrymen/women or as good neighbors.

  72. Mosisa October 11, 2015 at 3:27 pm #

    @GoodNews:

    Before talking about you comment let me just says that, it’s more likely than not, you are Habesha who is TPLF henchman. But you are masquerading as Oromo. Because, for the life of me, I couldn’t envisage that any dumbest Oromo; even with debilitating cognitive impairment would write such anti-Oromo flimflam.

    However, in the unlikely event that you are Oromo, I say you are an ambassador for colonization of Oromia who spent all your life in Habesha’s eco-chamber and you have adopted slavery and accepted your inferior status and decided to endure your slave-rank. So, for your own sake, it’s better you extricate yourself from this suffocation and get enlightened by reading books and other materials written by Oromo professors such as Bulcha, Jalata, and the rest. It’s only then that you release yourself from mental slavery asylum in which you are currently languishing.

    Back to you comment: I want to be civil. I really don’t want to say your scribbles was balderdash and gobbledygook, although in reality it was. Because I couldn’t figure out what are you charging me with? What is the point you want argue against or made you confused if you are “functionally-literate”, as opposed to being “simply-literate”?

    Let me again, just simplify to the minimum/bone what I said regarding Oromian independence VS Colonial rule over Oromia and compare it to what you said, I said.

    1. This is what I said “I know no Oromo political organisation include OLF, or any eminent Oromo individuals who people listen to, who has claimed living together, per see, is bad and they don’t want to live with anyone.” Here if you notice the operative and vital phrase is “per se”. But you mixed up paragraphs and you wrote “…you consciously or unconsciously accept the reality of living together by posing the question …”on whose term is living together formulate? “ and further asserting that no Oromo organization or prominent Oromos said or advocated that living together is bad…” I will never-ever accept Habesha rule over Oromia, or what you call “live together.” This is con and deceit on your part to misrepresent what I said. To fully appreciate what I said you have to understand what the meaning of “per see” is, which, is the key phrase in the sentence. Here is where being “functionally-literate” comes in handy for you. It seems you don’t have a clue as to what the phrase “per se“ means. If you did, you couldn’t came to the conclusion that I am advocating Oromia ruled by the Ethiopian empire, whereas, the fact of what I said was the converse. It’s only in your day dreams that I advocate Oromia remain under the Ethiopian empire or “your living together”. So please don’t make me culpable for your inability to understand what is written. No self-respecting Oromo advocate negotiating away the sovereignty of Oromian over Oromia. When I said on whose is living together formulated?, I was talking about the living together arranged where the rules are above the rulers, such as where German, France, Italy, etc, live together under a fair rules which is above the rulers. In your Emiye Ethiopian it’s the converse, the rulers are above the rules, hence colonial state.

    2. I also said “Hence this debate, discussion or deliberation about Oromian independence VS Abyssinia rule is totally waste of time. Oromia will be independent, sooner or later.” To repeat what I said the discussion about Oromia independence VS living under the Habesha empire is stale and antediluvian talk. I believe, it’s the settled will of any self-respecting Oromo to be free and independent. So, say to your Emiye ethipia good-bye, adieu. ciao, adios, au revoir.

    So, please don’t distort what I said just to fit in to you dream narrative. One thing you have to bear in mind is that, Oromians don’t need any permission from anyone, never mind Habeshas, to get their country back.

    Now, let me turn to what you said the amazing things you are doing for Oromos:
    1. You claim that you are “…. fight for all stake holders and get a good deal for Oromo people…resource distribution…, etc”. Wow ! Really? What is Oromo’s stake in Tigre land? Amhara Land? How many Tigre and Amhara farmers were evicted by Oromo entrepreneurs around Mekele and surrounding area? How about around AXume? or Gonder? Baher Dare? How many Oromo factories are there in those regions? So what you are giving up even without raising a voice is Oromo resources to the point where Oromos are committing suicide in addition the massacre of the TPLF. So your claim of settlement, resources distribution, stake holder, etc, is the colonial exploitation of Oromia. You are talking about the distribution of Oromo resources between the Abyssinians at the exclusion of Oromians. . Nothing less nothing more. Shame on you!

    2. You lamented where OLF brought you so far, and said “…you have already done an incalculable damage under OLF .. that we are now picking up to repair the damage”. The damage you are talking is the damage done to your Unitary state Ethiopia. In effect, in Habesha speak; you are saying in a simple and clear voice, we are going to reverse everything the Oromo people has gain so far, i.e. destroy the territorial boundary of Oromia, marginalize our language, etc, etc. In the process of reversing this, you are going to swim in the blood-flood of Oromos than ever. Dream on!

    It’s amazing how you have internalized TPLF doctrine and accepted as the gospel truth. It’s a Latin to me that you trail individual names and follow Oromo forum and wanted to tell us about these things? Your flagrant audacity is beyond my compression?

    Let me also tell you about your erroneous assumptions. First: how do you know someone is from 70s, 60s 50s, 40s or 80s 90s, millennium, etc. By the way the people in the 70s and earlier were the great generation that laid the foundation for where we are now and could be in future. There are, right now, kids barely university age who speak the same language as those 70s heroes speak. Second: OLF has millions of supports around the world. What is this resign or retire business? Do you want all OLF leaders and supporters to resign? You don’t get. You are focusing on individuals. The idea for which OLF stands endures. It’s spirit and soul lives on. The idea of OLF never resigns or retires as long as Oromians live. So please stop personalizing the political believe that all Oromians have internalized it and will die for and die with it.

    It also looks to me you are so terrified. You talk about the evil, the chaos, etc . If you are Oromo you are slave any way. Kids will tell you that. It does matter how many years you live, but it matters how you live. That is one of the greatest men who ever lived said. “In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.” Abraham Lincoln.

  73. Bariisoo October 11, 2015 at 9:25 pm #

    @FF;”as the recent research shows habeshas are also kushitic”.pls ,would you mind indictae your reference?
    Good news, Mario, senayit .you can not learn from your fathers mistakes and your mistakes. Still your are trying repeat the same scenario, As Eriterea gone by force,you will see Oromia will go, Somalia will go; it is a matter of time.As leopard can not change its colour Abyssinians can not change their selfishness and egoistic character.They are talking and writing good things but in reality they are digging graves for others. It makes me laugh when @Good news impose himself to worry about the future of indpendent Oromia and Oromo people. read your own statments
    ” well what can I say except this is not in our blood … to handover our brothers to Arabs so that some lunatic can come to power to rule a much weakened state that will be a puppet of Arabs and be a YES government to whatever they order to guard their national interest ” . Some one with the exprience of pupetism think that others will also become puppets.If Abyssinians are the puppets of the wests,they think that the others will have the same fate. ye azany kibe anguach,kkk
    how do you know that Independent Oromia is weak or strong? are you a prophet or Magician to tell us what will happen. From your comments; clearly demonstrated your chauvinistic thinking as clear as ice water.you Abyssinians,Instead of showering nervous,hating comments it is better for you to take time and think how do the problems can be solved. You Abbyssinians robbed us by gun, we silently tolerated you for more than a century and couple of decades,still you robbing us and dream to robbe us. we say enough is enough.

  74. regas October 15, 2015 at 7:37 pm #

    @JustFY
    I too met at onetime two naive northern men (most likely from Tigrai) where they were talking how the oromo land is much more fertile and vast compared to them. They were discussing without giving any attention to my presence or my identity.

    It is not the resource that is a problem to the society. After hundred years of dictatorial rule or Eritrea having 1000 kms of sea wealth for nearly a quarter of a century never changed the poverty staus or the peaceful existance. After so much blood shed for Eritrea independence, why look for another bloodshed? Could it be a greed for resource or an adiction for blood shed?

    I feel rather they have their grievance for being fallen under the influence the invisible hand of the international organized thieves and the Western countries for using them for their own interest in the name peace keepers where no peace ever seen than putting them in unecessary blood shed and hatred by neighbouring countries.
    Therefore those men who talk about lack of resource are misguided since all have high and low lands but the hidden truth that the oromos have high poverty and overpopulation.

  75. Wikipedia December 23, 2016 at 10:32 pm #

    Well, the simplified answer is to use the fund. In flow to
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